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The standard English of the inner-circle countries is often taken as a norm for use of English in the outer-circle countries. English is classified as an Anglo-Frisian language because Frisian and English share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in Proto-Germanic (see Phonological history of Old English  Palatalization ). Some analyses add pronouns as a class separate from nouns, and subdivide conjunctions into subordinators and coordinators, and add the class of interjections. For example, putting the sentence she sees him into the passive becomes he is seen (by her), or he gets seen (by her). The next most commonly mentioned foreign language, French (which is the most widely known foreign language in the UK and Ireland could be used in conversation by 12 percent of respondents. Most of those varieties of English include words little used by native speakers of English in the inner-circle countries, and they may show grammatical and phonological differences from inner-circle varieties as well. In Brown, Keith (ed.). Modern English developed mainly from Mercian, but the Scots language developed from Northumbrian. An introduction to English grammar (Second.). Pronouncing spy almost like spa the "Southern breaking" of several front pure vowels into a gliding vowel or even two syllables (e.g. In 1755 Samuel Johnson published his A Dictionary of the English Language which introduced standard spellings of words and usage norms. For example, he has to go where only the auxiliary verb have is inflected for time and the main verb to go is in the infinitive, or in a complement clause such as I saw him leave, where the main verb is to see which.  via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) Algeo, John (1999). The majority of immigrants to the United States without British ancestry rapidly adopted English after arrival. By the time of the foundation of the United Nations at the end of World War II, English had become pre-eminent and is now the main worldwide language of diplomacy and international relations.

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Today Irish English is divided into Ulster English, the Northern Ireland dialect with strong influence from Scots, as well as various dialects of the Republic of Ireland. Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Around 1430, the Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documents, and a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standard, developed from the dialects of London and the East Midlands. Other examples include Simple English. Nigerian English is a dialect of English spoken in Nigeria. Retrieved 7 February 2015. The personal pronouns retain a difference between subjective and objective case in most persons ( I/me, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them ) as well as a gender and animateness distinction in the third person singular (distinguishing he/she/it ).

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Eastern New England English and New York City English and African American Vernacular English, all of which are historically non-rhotic. Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia See also: South African English, Nigerian English, Caribbean English, and Indian English English is spoken widely in South Africa and is an official or co-official language in several countries. English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners (including articles prepositions, and conjunctions. "Chapter 2: The Old English Language". Non-native varieties of English are widely used for international communication, and speakers of one such variety often encounter features of other varieties.  via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) Conrad, Andrew.; Rubal-Lopez, Alma. Now the majority of the United States population are monolingual English speakers, although English has been given official status by only 30 of the 50 state governments of the. The phrase then functions as a single predicate. Further complications have arisen through sound changes with which the orthography has not kept pace. Due to its status as an international language, English adopts foreign words quickly, and borrows vocabulary from many other sources. Discourse markers are also used for stance taking in which speakers position themselves in a specific attitude towards what is being said, for example, no way is that true! 207 Over half of these words are nouns, a quarter adjectives, and a seventh verbs. In terms of intonation the preposition is fused to the verb, but in writing it is written as a separate word.

US (64.3) UK (16.7) Canada (5.3) Australia (4.7) South Africa (1.3) Ireland (1.1) New Zealand (1) Other (5.6) Pluricentric English English is datesider norge sex film porno a pluricentric language, which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language. For example, the view of the English language among many Indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India. New nouns can be formed through derivation or compounding. Mid and open vowels were raised, and close vowels were broken into diphthongs. African American English: a linguistic introduction. Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe. Shakespeare's works and Elizabethan pronunciation. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. Retrieved Bailey, Guy (2001). "Lickety splits: two nations divided by a common language". The norms of standard written English are maintained purely datesider norge sex film porno by the consensus of educated English-speakers around the world, without any oversight by any government or international organisation. Basic constituent order English word order has moved from the Germanic verb-second (V2) word order to being almost exclusively subjectverbobject (SVO). The Times of India. In the Wycliffe Bible of the 1380s, the verse Matthew 8:20 was written: Foxis han dennes, and briddis of heuene han nestis 46 Here the plural suffix -n datesider norge sex film porno on the verb have is still retained, but none of the case endings on the nouns are. Another way is through a cleft sentence where the main clause is demoted to be a complement clause of a copula sentence with a dummy subject such as it or there,.g. The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that learning to read can be challenging in English. Furthermore, several consonants have limited distributions: /h/ can only occur in syllable-initial position, and / only in syllable-final position. The first-person present-tense form is am, the third person singular form is and the form are is used second-person singular and all three plurals. Some words, primarily short function words but also some modal verbs such as can, have weak and strong forms depending on whether they occur in stressed or non-stressed position within a sentence. Vestiges of the case and gender system are found in the pronoun system ( he/him, who/whom ) and in the inflection of the copula verb. One of the most productive processes in English is conversion, using a word with a different grammatical role, for example using a noun as a verb or a verb as a noun. Within Britain, there is also considerable variation along lines of social class, and some traits though exceedingly common are considered "non-standard" and are associated with lower class speakers and identities. Ingvaeonic ) dialects brought to Great Britain.


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Some dialects have fewer or more consonant phonemes and phones than the standard varieties. Because of the strict SVO syntax, the topic of a sentence generally has to be the grammatical subject of the sentence. This gives an English syllable the following structure, (CCC)V(cccc) where C represents a consonant and V a vowel; the word strengths /strks/ is thus an example of the most complex syllable possible in English. "List of languages by total number of speakers, Ethnologue 2019". Changing the vowel of the stem, as in the pairs speak/spoke and foot/feet ) and weak stems inflected through affixation (such as love/loved, hand/hands ). Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English. The diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/ are monophthongs e and o or even the reverse diphthongs ie and uo (e.g. 65 English is spoken by communities on every continent and on islands in all the major oceans.

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An example of this is H-dropping, which was historically a feature of lower-class London English, particularly Cockney, and can now be heard in the local accents of most parts of Englandyet it remains largely absent in broadcasting and among the upper crust of British society. In English, adjectives come before the nouns they modify and after determiners. "The grammar of English phrasal verbs". Mass nouns can only be pluralised through the use of a count noun classifier,.g. Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties. The Cambridge companion to Old English literature (Second.). International broadcasters are usually identifiable as coming from one country rather than another through their accents, but newsreader scripts are also composed largely in international standard written English. The differences in the pronunciations of the letters c and g are often signalled by the following letters in standard English spelling. In Romaine, Suzanne (ed.). Adverbs The function of adverbs is to modify the action or event described by the verb by providing additional information about the manner in which it occurs. Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes. I me my mine myself 2nd.

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Eskorte halden massasjejenter bergen Bauer, Laurie; Huddleston, Rodney. Lay off meaning terminate someone's employment ). Discourse level syntax While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a topic-comment structure, where the known information amatur porn nakne damer bilder (topic) precedes the new information (comment). It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70 of speakers of this Indo-European branch.
Barbere nedentil aylar lie video "IPA transcription systems for English". They have many more speakers of English who acquire English as they grow up through day-to-day use and listening to broadcasting, especially if they attend schools where English is the medium of instruction. Other changes affecting the phonology of local varieties are processes such as yod -dropping, yod -coalescence, and reduction of consonant clusters. Dialects, accents, and varieties Main articles: List of dialects of the English language, World Englishes, and regional accents of English Dialectologists identify many English dialects, which usually refer to regional varieties that differ from each other in terms of patterns of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation.
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